The Nigerian Independence Celebration
Posted by abdul at October 1st, 2015
Nigeria gained her independence from Britain in October 1960. Three years later, it becomes a republic.The history of Nigeria can be traced to prehistoric settlers living in the area as early as 11,000 BC. Numerous ancient African civilizations settled in the region that is today Nigeria. An example of one of the civilizations that settles in Nigeria is the Nri Kingdom. Islam reached Nigeria through the Hausa States during the 11th century. The Songhai Empire also occupied part of the region. Lagos was captured by British forces in 1851 and formally annexed in 1861. Nigeria became a British protectorate in 1901. Colonization lasted until 1960, when an independence movement succeeded in gaining Nigeria its independence.
Nigeria first became a republic in 1963, but succumbed to military rule in 1966 after a bloody coup d'état. A separatist movement later formed the Republic of Biafra in 1967, leading to the three-year Nigerian Civil War. Nigeria became a republic once again after a new constitution was written in 1979. However, the republic was short-lived, when the military led by Major General Muhammadu Buhari seize again four years later. Buhari was overthrown and a new republic was founded in August 1993, but was dissolved again by General Sani Abacha in November 1993. Abacha died in 1998 and a fourth republic was later established the following year, ending three decades of intermittent military rule. few years back every well meaning citizen of Nigeria cry out for change in the pattern of governance because of massive corruption that monument itself in the democratic government led by the then president GEJ. Here we are today, the government of the change has been installed.
Igala land and the people
The Igala Kingdom lies between Latitude 6° 30′ and 8° 40 north and Longitude 6° 30′ and 7° 40 east, occupying a total land area of about 13,665 sq. km. (Oguagha, 1981). Officially, it has a population of 1,409,000 as per the 2006 head-count. The Igala Kingdom shares boundaries on all sides with non-Igala-speaking ethnic groups, namely : the Bassà Ngéẹ̣̣̀ ,̣̣̣ Bassà Kómo, Àgàtú and Ìgbìrà Mózùm to the north and north-east (see Àbachà ; Ìbarà ) ; the Ìdọmà and Ìgbò to the east and south ; the Èbìrà-Ìhímá to the west and the Étsàkò to the south-west.
In 1918, following the return of Ata’s complete territory to him by the Colonial Administration, after it had been partitioned for years, the Igala Native Authority (N.A.) was established. It was headed by the incumbent Àtá-Igála at the time, Ògwùché ̣̣̣̣̣ Akpá. That year, the Igala N.A. created new Districts in addition to the ones earlier created by the Administration, as follows :
(i) Dèkína Division
In addition to the three (3) existing districts created by the Colonial Administration (Dèkína, Bassà Kómo and È ̣gwúmé ̣ or Òkwùlà Districts), Bìraidù (Èbìladù), Mózùm and Bassà Ǹgéẹ̀ ̣ Districts were created, Bringing the total districts in Dekina Division to six(6).
(ii) Ánkpa Division
Four (4) Districts (Ánkpa, Ìfè,̣ Ògwùgwù and Ímáné) had been created by the Colonial Administration. In 1918, É ṇ jẹmà and Ólamábórō ̣ were created ; and, Ójokwu District, which had been in Bójù Division (Idomaland), was brought back into Ánkpa Division, thus, bringing the total number of districts there to seven (7).
(iii) Ídá Division
The following districts were created in 1918 : Ídá Waterside, Ìbàjí, Òdóḷ ú, Ójóko (now Ígálámeḹa) and Ọ́máta (now Ùgwọlawó) Districts. However, in 1930, Àtá Òbàje Òchéje carved out Ítobè District out of Ùgwọlawó District ; while Ígálọgbá (Àlóṃa) District was carved out of È ̣gwúmé ̣ or Òkwùlà) District. Thus, Ídá Division had seven (7) Districts in all.
|3.||Bassà Ǹgéẹ̀ ̣||Gboloko|
|6.||Ẹ́jẹmà (Éṇ jemà)||É ̣jẹmà (Éṇ jemà)|
|18.||Òkwùlà (Ègwúmé)̣||Ègwúmé ̣|
|19.||Òdóḷ ú||Òdóḷ ú|
The independence celebration always come and go every year, so much articles were always written and read in conferences and seminars on how languages are going into extinction.
- Have you ever thought of the fate of Igala language in this river of language threat eroding our mother tongue?
- Have you ever thought of what you can offer to promote Igala land and the language?
- Do think of knowing any thing about this language extinction there are always talking about?
- Do you know that if the earlier English speaker relaxed on expanding their language, we would never have lived to use it as a lingua franca?
A language is endangered when its speakers cease to use it, use it in fewer and fewer domains, use fewer of its registers and speaking styles, and/or stop passing it on to the next generation. No single factor determines whether a language is endangered, but UNESCO experts have identified nine that should be considered together:
- Intergenerational language transmission
- Absolute number of speakers
- Proportion of speakers within the total population
- Shifts in domains of language use
- Response to new domains and media
- Availability of materials for language education and literacy
- Governmental and institutional language attitudes and policies including official status and use
- Community members’ attitudes toward their own language
- Amount and quality of documentation
For more information on how these nine factors can be considered, see the copy of UNESCO report on Language Vitality, Prepared by UNESCO Ad Hoc Expert Group on Endangered Languages (2003).
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Articles for learning Igala language
- The Dialects of Igala Language
- Igala alphabet – E
- Story telling (foktale) in Igala Culture
- Organisation of the Igala Numeral System
- Relationship Between Ígálá and Yorùbá Languages
- Unit Expressions / Morphological Forms in the Igala Numeral system
- Igala alphabet – I
- Arithmetic Operations in the Numeral system
- EDUCATION AND RE-ORIENTATION OF IGALA CULTURAL VALUES
- Overview of Igala alphabets
- Igala Orthography
- IGALA CLAN SALUTATIONS
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Do you believe language can die?
- Educational potentials of Igala language:
- What are the causes of language endangerment and disappearance?
- Cultivation of positive attitude towards Igala Language.
- Who made the UNESCO Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger?
- THE PROBLEM – LANGUAGE DEATH
- The effects of Governmental and institutional language attitudes
- What can be done to save a language from disappearing?
- How do you define an endangered language?
- Need for adequate materials for Language Education and Literacy.
- Which are the regions with the most endangered languages?
- Do new languages appear today?
- Lack of Intergenerational Language Transmission as a threath to Igala language
- Igala alphabet – U
- THE GRACE OF A TRUE “ATA” (FATHERHOOD)
- TABOO AS AN ASPECT OF IGALA CULTURE
- How Response to New Domains and Media affect the growth of Igala Language
- Igala alphabet – O
- History of Igalapedia Project
- Threats to the growth of Igala language
- AKWU or ALO (Idoms)
- Arithmetic Operations in the Numeral system
- British imperialism and the reign of Attah Ameh Oboni – the inevitable clash)
- The Igala Kingdom
- OKPA – ATA (THE SCEPTER)